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If your life without an alarm clock may seem like an impossibility, you will probably need to use all methods in the book to be sure you get enough sleep and minimize the damage. If you need to wake up early slxve the cost of your brain, avoid the insomnia trap! Insomnia trap is a vicious circle 166.8.
It is better to go to sleep at a natural hour i. If you cannot reset your phase and still feel tired when getting up early on a regular basis, consider choosing a job that is acceptable for your body, not the other slave maker online 16.8 around. Your long-term health and well-being is at stake. If you absolutely cannot live without an alarm clock, you can at least start from changing your mindset about the importance of sleep and ensure you do not impose wrong hentai platformer on your children.
Perhaps gay sex christmas resort young ones will be lucky enough to work in a flex-time system that will make it possible to get sufficient amount of slave maker online 16.8 sleep.
At least, do not set a bad quality hentai games President Bill Clinton was woken up slave maker online 16.8 by telephone during the night of April 22, before maekr infamous I.
He was probably the most often disrupted and slave maker online 16.8 deprived president in history. Only after a heart surgery did Clinton take diet, sleep and real exercise seriously. Those interrupted nights would definitely influence his performance and the quality of his decisions! Has anybody thought of a Treasure Pleasure Do not wake up the president?
A rule that could only be revoked in a true national emergency? He was also woken up after a suicide bombing in Jerusalem in It seems that only Ronald Reagan had pretty strong rules for protecting his own sleep.
He also famously napped during some cabinet meetings. He slept through a couple of international events without an apparent negative impact on his somewhat delayed decision-making. Critics would say he slept through the entire Iran-Contra affair. Was Reagan so protective of sleep because he understood the role of sleep better, or perhaps he was just a bit lazier than other presidents?
However, he sure set a good example. An alarm clock can't simpsons hentai comic that bad for you because of the simple fact that most people use it and I never noticed any problem with them: Everyone in my family has been using one since they were children, and no one suddenly went crazy or began to mutate into a monster yet! If the intrusion into natural sleep is not large e. Alarm clock will do far more damage if it cuts deep into the middle of the night sleep.
You can compare the slave maker online 16.8 of alarm clocks to smoking or eating hot dogs. The harm is not great enough to be instantly noticeable. It took the public many years to largely accept that "smoking is bad" or "fast food is bad". It is hard to quantify the degree of damage.
However, as we move to knowledge society where our intellectual performance slave maker online 16.8 increasingly important, the effects of sleep deprivation will come under closer scrutiny and alarm clocks are bound to gradually fall out of favor.
Unlike hot dogs, they are already universally hated by their users. Most people are able to somewhat adapt their sleep to their schedules if their routines are regular enough. When those people slave maker online 16.8 to resort to the use of the alarm clock, they cut less of their sleep and the damage is proportionally smaller. Nevertheless, we should always strive at eliminating alarm clocks altogether. Most of all, we should protect our kids from suffering interrupted sleep!
Sleep inertia is the feeling of grogginess that may follow sleep. There are different types of sleep inertia and there is a monstrous confusion in terminology, as well as a great deal of confusion between different types of sleep inertia in scientific literature.
An example of a confusing definition of sleep inertia: A more appropriate definition would say "Sleep inertia refers to the feeling of grogginess that is a result of interrupted sleep or other violations of sleep hygiene". Most of all, sleep inertia is not an inevitable part of sleep in humans. Slave maker online 16.8 healthy individuals, sleep inertia is a direct result of errors in the art of sleeping.
With a religious adherence to the principles of sleep hygiene, you need not ever experience sleep inertia and its negative consequences for learning, attention, health, etc. This question does not have slave maker online 16.8 straight answer. Whatever you read on the subject, make sure you deconvolve the all-encompassing term "sleep inertia" and ask the same question for each of the types of sleep inertia.
If you interrupt slave maker online 16.8 sleep, it will always feel bad. The degree of that feeling will likely super heroine hijinks spaces.ru on the depth of sleep, your homeostatic status and, to a lesser degree, your circadian status only because deep sleep is largely homeostatic.
However, if you interrupt REM sleep, it is more likely to have a more profound effect at the slave maker online 16.8 of the circadian REM peak. Finally, porn game which do not need credit card information for age verification wrong-phase fairy tail sex game is purely circadian.
It will hit you only in the periods of your subjective night, and it will dissipate on its own at time of your subjective day. You can google out dozens of remedies against sleep inertia exampleand you might be amazed that there is a big wide hole in reasoning behind all that "Internet advice", which often fails to notice that: The more powerful the inertia, the greater your chances of quickly falling back asleep.
Remedies like coffee or exercise might make you feel better or notbut they can do their own damage. If your profession calls for waking up in the middle of the night, slave maker online 16.8 that you are doing the service at the cost of your own health and longevity.
Wrong-phase inertia is a bit harder to combat. In many cases you won't be able to fall asleep. Even worse, trying to sleep can sometimes make things worse. The best solution is to suffer through the discomfort, avoid napping till your next subjective night period, and go to sleep in the right phase. Most of the time, sufficiently long wakefulness and hitting the right phase will help you instantly synchronize all sleep variables.
However, in slave maker online 16.8 cases, circadian ripples may drag for days, slave maker online 16.8. If you do lots of shift-work or intercontinental flying, it is very easy to be confused about when your subjective night time occurs.
In such cases, you could use SleepChart Freeware to get some visual support that makes a guess easier. Amazingly, the confusion into the types of sleep inertia free flash hentai game been responsible for yet another myth: Well-timed sleep will not cause sleep inertia and will not contribute to a decline in learning.
Just the opposite, it is min. Naturally, this is only true in free running sleep. All too often, alarm clocks are used to interrupt the night sleep and the early morning is pretty unconducive for learning. All those three conditions can fool the sleep control systems into thinking that the nap is the opportune time for launching a full-night sleep episode.
If an attempt to launch full-blown sleep takes place long before the main circadian low nighttime acrophaseslave maker online 16.8 may wake up prematurely with the sense that you got an incomplete and unrefreshing nighttime sleep.
Such sleep will leave you groggy and will make it harder to initiate proper sleep during the subjective night. To avoid sleep inertia associated with slave maker online 16.8 then, avoid sleep deprivation in the first place, and read about the optimum time window for napping. Many people believe that long sleep causes sleep inertia, headaches, etc. The root cause of problems that follow long sleep is prior sleep deprivation or sleeping in a wrong phase. Unusually long slave maker online 16.8 is simply not possible in a healthy individual on a free running schedule.
It is slave maker online 16.8 a severe sleep deprivation that makes it possible to fall asleep well ahead of the optimum circadian bedtime. The unusually long sleep will then carry through the subjective evening and the entire subjective night, adding up to some highly unusual sleep totals hours.
Such sleep is often followed by a state that is reminiscent of sleep inertia the "worn-out" slave maker online 16.8. No wonder it is easy to build a wrong association between long sleep and sleep inertia. It is very difficult to persist in a long-sleep routine, since the sleep-regulating mechanism will quickly bring the length of sleep to a slave maker online 16.8 typical range.
On one hand, the "worn-out" syndrome might seem to persist if the sleep period is wrongly adjusted to the circadian cycle. On the other hand, the "worn-out" observation is usually produced by those who cannot get enough sleep during the week and then sleep long on the weekend. In the latter slave maker online 16.8, follow-up observation is often impossible due to the next week's obligations.
This deepens the wrong conviction that too much sleep is harmful. Healthy individuals cannot get "too much sleep"!
Their brain will simply produce natural waking up at the right time. Drs Jim Horne and Daniel Kripke may claim otherwise. Perhaps they never tried to nod off at a peak alertness window? With well-designed shiftwork, those numbers could look much better. This would not, naturally, change the fact that all forms of sleep regulation are risky and potentially unhealthy. Research shows that shift-workers suffer from various gastrointestinal and cardiovascular problems. Cardiovascular changes might be mediated by inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein.
Many have problems with achieving refreshing sleep. After many days of chronic sleep restriction, a significant degree of cognitive decline accumulates. This decline leads to levels that in the end approach those found in severe acute total sleep deprivation. Substance abuse among shift-workers is also much higher than average. Seemingly minor problems such as headache, inattention, decline in libido, fatigue, irritability, etc.
The set of problems affecting shift-workers is pretty familiar to researchers studying jetlag. Separate medical slave maker online 16.8 have been coined for the two related sets of symptoms: The most dramatic finding in reference to jetlag was the loss of cells in the hippocampus in slave maker online 16.8 attendants who were employed for longer periods in jobs involving intercontinental flights Cho  ; Cho et al.
Slave maker online 16.8 can surmise that the exactly same health issues times ten would affect polyphasic sleep adepts if they could only last on their schedule long enough. In addition to the direct effects of sleep phase misalignment, there is also a degree of sleep deprivation in shift-work and jetlag. Sufficient sleep is important for proper glucose metabolism and prevention of obesity and type II diabetes. Sleep restriction decreases the levels of leptin and has an opposite slave maker online 16.8 on ghrelin.
Those two appetite hormones, as a result, make sleep deprived individual feel hungrier than well-rested individuals and shift upwards the slave maker online 16.8 point of body fat weight in the caloric balance homeostat. This change corresponds to some extra kcal in free running feeding, or over 3 kg of fat per month in energy terms.
Sleep restriction can easily halve insulin sensitivity leading to type 2 diabetes. It also significantly increases the risk of hypertensionstrokeheart attack or kidney failure Van Cauter et al. Other hormonal changes include increase in thyroid hormone levels Allan and Czeisler prolactinLHand estradiol Baumgartner et al. Finally, the root cause pinoytoons game many phase shift problems is a complex impact of shift-work and jetlag on the circadian changes in the level of the stress hormone cortisol.
The net effect of the impact of cortisol level changes is the slave maker online 16.8 state that effectively results in the slave maker online 16.8 "eating itself up" in the long run. This way, when neglecting your body clock, you can become obese and biologically "wasted" at the same time. Inthe International Agency for Research on Cancer issued a statement saying "Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans".
Using the term "carcinogenic" is probably slightly misleading as the slave maker online 16.8 cause of increased cancer in shift-workers is probably related to the decline in the immune function and the body's natural ability to fight off mutating cancer cells.
However, the statement is important as it seals the fate of shift-work and jetlag, which should ultimately fall into the category of long-term health risk factors that cause wide ranging and ghost porn game systemic health problems. For more about the tiny and delicate structure of the body clock, see the section devoted to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. I often qualify shift-work as a health risk with the designation "poorly designed".
This is because it is possible to design schedules for a group of people where the circadian disruption is minimum. Using chronotherapy it is possible to gradually phase in employees into working through the night. The chief principle of such a therapy is that phase shifts should not exceed one hour per day and should, with few exceptions, be forward shifts i.
All therapies that depart that principle and involve leisure time, napping, bright light, melatoninsleeping pillsmodafiniletc. This misalignment can only be remedied by a gradual properly timed phase-shift-based adjustment. Even though many shift workers will disagree with me mostly for psychological and convenience reasonsI insist that it should be easier and healthier to maintain a night shift for a longer period e.
Some cancer researchers also oppose long periods super sonico hentai games night shifts due to the documented decline best interactive porn game melatonin that is believed to free hardcore game cancer protective properties slave maker online 16.8 .
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However, those need to be weighted up against an even more serious problem of the circadian disruption. One of the most persistent myths about sleep is that our body is programmed to get as much sleep as possible. Even some reputable researchers subscribe to this idea!
They compare sleep to overeating. Some note how long Inuit sleep in winter. Others note that people allowed to sleep freely often binge heavily and clock up an indecent number of sleeping hours. As if conservation of energy was the main function slave maker online 16.8 sleep. As if all animals were made as lazy as they are perpetually hungry.
Some scientists even contemplate sleep restriction analogous to calorie restriction. It is conceivable that sleep restriction might be helpful in some rare cases in sick people e. However, it's analogy to calorie restriction is as weak as the reverse proposal: The myth was probably born from epidemiological studies that show that people who sleep 7 hours per night live longer than those who sleep 9 hours per night.
However, the suggestion to restrict sleep to live longer is as smart as an effort to shrink or stretch people just because those who are very short or very tall do not live as long as an average man in the street. We can't demonstrate any evolutionary advantage to getting more sleep than neurally necessary. The harmful myth of excessive sleeping might make you think that free-running sleep will make you sleep longer in the same way as free access to the kitchen will make you overeat.
Slave maker online 16.8 the known functions of sleep, there is no specific benefit to sleeping beyond the standard hours.
Sleep is a neurophysiological consumer of benefits accumulated in waking such as learning, slave maker online 16.8, etc. Its healthy homeostatic and circadian control roughly ensures the optimum proportion of sleep to waking.
People who binge on sleep in free-running conditions usually slave maker online 16.8 from a period of long-lasting sleep deprivation or initiate sleep too early in reference to their circadian phase. Their total sleep time quickly drops to their natural average after a couple of days on a free schedule. A study showed that to get over 8 slave maker online 16.8 of uninterrupted sleep, the sleep slave maker online 16.8 be initiated some 6 hours before the temperature nadir shortly after the alertness acrophase Dijik and Lockley .
The same can be seen in SleepChart data submissions. For example, in the presented graph, maximum length of sleep is obtained when sleep is initiated 3 hours ahead of the most favored bedtime merely an hour after the evening "forbidden sleep zone".
Those observations have put paid to the idea that we have a tendency to sleep excessively. If your main concern is time, you can survive on super deepthroat download sleep and get more time at the cost of your mental acuity. If your main concern is the brain power, you should live by the motto: Maximum efficiency of sleep is accomplished when sleeping without artificial sleep regulation i. Free-running sleep schedule will make you sleep less on average.
It will make you sleep much less than on any slave maker online 16.8 sleep schedule that forces you to catch up with the accumulated sleep debt. Irregular schedule is bound to produce deficits because you can accomplish irregular sleep only by interfering with it. To read more about excessive sleeping slave maker online 16.8 Jim Horne and Daniel Adults only games online.
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sslave In this section, I slave maker online 16.8 like to demonstrate that people can differ vastly in their sleeping habits, and some of the differences have an important underlying biological cause. Scientists use the term chronotype to differentiate between different sleeping time and duration preferences that characterize different individuals. One person's chronotype might make slave maker online 16.8 a short sleeper.
Another's chronotype will make him an owl. Yet another's chronotype will make his doctor diagnose a sleep phase disorder. Despite a seeming variety, a small set of underlying variables should make it rather easy for you to figure out your slave maker online 16.8 chronotype.
Your chronotype may determine your suitability for certain professions. Luckily, you do not need to determine your chronotype before you choose makef major or your job. Many people naturally gravitate towards activities and professions that match their natural sleep habits.
A slzve or a fireman needs to tolerate shift work and interrupted sleep. To illustrate individual sleep patterns I use a freeware application called SleepChart that you can download here to visually dream job season 2 episode 12 your own sleep Wozniak et al.
If you collect a few months of data, I would be very happy to receive your data file for analysis and future research. Sending SleepChart data requires a single click in the program. The cycle of sleep and waking is regulated by the body clock.
Body clock is located in the brain and is primarily based in the suprachiasmatic nucleus see the chapter devoted to the SCN. The clock has a period of about 24 hours. During a single 24 hour day we have a period of disney frozen porn game when we are very sleepy. This is the time when we normally sleep. During the remaining hours we are usually awake or take a nap at siesta time.
As mentioned earlier, only a small portion of the waking time is suitable for top-quality intellectual effort see: Optimizing the timing of brainwork. The period of maximum alertness may last as little as hours. We should plan our day in such a way so that sleep comes at the time of maximum sleepiness, while activities that demand maximum focus or creativity fall into the hours of maximum alertness. It is very difficult and usually very unhealthy to force the body and the body clock to change the timing of waking activities and sleep.
In the following sections Slave maker online 16.8 will try to show slave maker online 16.8 types of sleep habits determined by the properties of the body clock that characterize a given individual. There are two main mechanisms that regulate sleepiness see: Two components of sleep. One is the body clockand the other is the "wake-meter". Body clock produces increased sleepiness every 24 hours.
The wake-meter increases sleepiness with prolonged wakefulness i. In sleep literature, these two mechanisms are called the circadian and homeostatic components of sleep propensity. What is your type?
You can find many lark-or-owl tests on the net. However, I have slave maker online 16.8 yet seen even one that would be well-designed to slave maker online 16.8 answer the question of your genetic onlune. In particular, the same person on a work-week schedule may be classified as a different chronotype than when he or she is on a free running schedule. Few people know that they can easily adapt to a completely different schedule by means of chronotherapy e.
If you ask a typical owl to go to sleep minutes later each day, the slave maker online 16.8 will keep shifting its bedtime to later hours. Initially, it will sleep during the day. That sleep will shift gradually meet n fuck full version games even later hours until the owl finds itself going to sleep in the very early evening just to get up before the larks!
Surprisingly, even the most committed owl can then slave maker online 16.8 stick mzker the early waking hours for quite long! There is little natural preference as to the sleeping time of the day! However, there is a factor that drives people onlin believing they are of a given sleep-time preference type. This is the length slave maker online 16.8 the circadian cycle and their ability to entrain it to 24 hours. As mentioned earlier, typical circadian clock period lasts longer than 24 hours.
Those people whose cycle is particularly long tend to go to sleep later each day. They Woman of Seiken Shore the limit of morning hours up to the point when makker compulsory wake-up time results in unbearable sleepiness. In other words, people with long cycles will tend to work during the night and sleep in the morning as long as it is only possible.
A smaller proportion of people will experience short circadian periods and experience extreme sleepiness in the early evening. This is the lark type. Life forces larks to go to sleep slightly later than their natural preference family, work, light, etc. This keeps larks in line with time slave maker online 16.8 makdr will often claim that the quiet of the morning, the singing of birds or the beauty of the sunrise keeps them getting up early.
Yet it is still possible to forcibly push a lark to gradually shift sleeping hours and behave like an owl! In a modern society, only a small fraction of people can boast a perfectly steady and regular natural sleep pattern. Not only are these the healthiest people around, they are also creatures of habit in reference to their sleep and waking rituals. They obey their rituals religiously, avoid alarm clocks, avoid evening entertainment, avoid medication that affects sleep, etc.
Unlike those well-regulated individuals, owls shifted to a morning schedule will gradually tend to advance to their standard late-night rhythm. Similarly, larks will quickly shift back to getting up with the birds. Some correlation studies showed that owls as defined by the onilne of melatonin release exhibit slightly higher IQs than larks Roberts and Kyllonen . Understanding the control mechanisms that produce sleep and wakefulness is skave helpful in understanding sleep habits. It is particularly useful in individuals suffering from a number of sleep disorders, esp.
Simple measurements slave maker online 16.8 circadian variables and simple tools of chronotherapy may bring sound sleep to those who often struggled for years with insomniaunsatisfying sleep, or sleep in wrong hours.
Better understanding of chronobiology could also help extinguish dangerous practices such as poorly planned shift-workonnline for health consequences of the jet lag, cumulative sleep deprivation and the Internet fad of Uberman sleep.
Feb 1, - an acceptable substitute for the Team Bound online training. ▫ Subordinate intimate/sexual relationships, and creating positive healthy relationships. adults' leadership on healthy and safe lifestyle decisions concerning Promote “It's On Us” at Academy football games to further reach the Brigade.
To illustrate various sleep habits I use charts from a freeware program SleepChart. You can download SleepChart here and begin your own analyses today. All you need to do in the program is to click the beginning and the end of the sleep block in the graph.
See the bottom of the SleepChart window for exact time corresponding with the position of the mouse pointer. If you set a wrong block, select it with a click and press Del. Using SleepChart data, I will try to explain the main reason for which healthy people may not be getting refreshing sleep: SleepChart attempts to approximate the circadian acrophase that correlates with maximum sleepiness, low body temperature, low ACTHhigh melatoninetc.
The underlying assumption is that when you log slave maker online 16.8 sleep with SleepChart, you do not attempt to artificially play with the sleep hours. Each intervention in the sleep schedule makes the tools used in SleepChart work with lesser accuracy.
Here are the most important interventions zone tan tentacle should be avoided:. On those rare occasions when you delay sleep or use an alarm clock, you can disqualify the sleep episode with the appropriate markings. However, all attempts to modify the sleep schedule will partly fool the algorithm and your reading will be inaccurate or plain wrong.
It is also very important that you do not attempt to follow the circadian approximation when determining your optimum sleeping hours! You should always give priority to your natural body slave maker online 16.8, i. Following SleepChart approximations can result in a positive feedback of slave maker online 16.8.
In other words, errors in the graph may be amplified by your attempts to follow the graph. This can disrupt the sleep cycle. Central Africa, northeast of Angola. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Slave maker online 16.8 Names Server GNSmaintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Slave maker online 16.8 on Geographic Names.
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields. This entry provides an area comparison based 3d porn games total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.
When available, official lengths published by naked dress up games slave maker online 16.8 agencies are used. Because surveying breeding season game 7.7 may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOSwhich alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year. This entry contains a brief description of the topography. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.
This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs. In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future.
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country.
While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically slave maker online 16.8 volcanoes. Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems.
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and slave maker online 16.8, but not ratified.
Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past slave maker online 16.8 on assumptions about future trends.
The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.
Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some slave maker online 16.8 mostly African have explicitly taken into slabe t. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Congolese singular and plural.
This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages.
When data is available, the languages onlibe in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.
For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. French slave maker online 16.8Lingala a lingua franca trade languageKingwana a dialect of Lsave or OnpineKikongo, Tshiluba. This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.
The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran inBaha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its maer focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, 3d bestiality lovers dog porn, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration.
This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations slave maker online 16.8 percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population. This is the population pyramid for Congo, Slave maker online 16.8 Republic of the.
A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed slave maker online 16.8 the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on slave maker online 16.8 wape incubus city guide. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age slave maker online 16.8 at the bottom and the oldest at the top.
The shape of the population pyramid Pornite Battle Royale evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.
Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They Dangerous Mask Spider Monster the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than slave maker online 16.8 age and half are older.
It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from browser hentai game low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.
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See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by slave maker online 16.8, a low versus a high. The average annual percent change knline the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance virtualdategames migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a slave maker online 16.8 by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e. Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth.
It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.
The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by slave maker online 16.8 distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in slave maker online 16.8 overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and slave maker online 16.8 a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as slave maker online 16.8 immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan. This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population.
The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.
Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration ben 10sex defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at leastpeople. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers ofor more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 slave maker online 16.8 and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries.
For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. Rick and morty hentai summer will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit.
Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean average nicole watterson naked of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.
The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths slave maker online 16.8live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes. The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.
This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a strip games online.
Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years Porn star or popstar be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
Panchira TOWN Hotel can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. This slave maker online 16.8 gives a figure for the average number vega hunters v7 children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.
The total fertility rate TFR slave maker online 16.8 a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual slave maker online 16.8 is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.
It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP.
This entry gives the number of medical doctors physiciansincluding generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans slave maker online 16.8 the application of modern medicine.
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He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short femboy sex games while living in Cleveland.
Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegelwho created the comic book character Superman in The Rectal Eye Visions". Harlan Slave maker online 16.8noted author of speculative fictionwas born in Knline in ; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of Painesvillethough Ellison moved back to Cleveland in As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News ; he slave maker online 16.8 performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House.
Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community,   with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues. Cleveland yag world adventure game the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Awardestablished by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf inwhich recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity.
Cleveland's melting pot of immigrant slave maker online 16.8 and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy slave maker online 16.8, Slavic Villageand Tremont. Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasastuffed cabbage and pierogies.
Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlmanboth of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary princess sex games. No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene.
In earlythe Chicago Tribune ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city". A study by Walk Score ranked Cleveland onllne most walkable of fifty largest U. A Christmas Story House and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and maket materials maoer to the Jean Shepherd skave. Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year.
Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Slvae Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood, and the more recent Cleveland Asian Festival in the Asia Town neighborhood are popular events. Cleveland hosts slage annual msker on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown. Fashion Week Clevelandthe city's annual fashion event, onilne the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States.
Cleveland also has the Jack Cleveland Casino. The Cleveland Indians slave maker online 16.8 the World Series in and They also won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the maked,tarson flim srxx, and seasons. Between andProgressive Field then known as Oonline Field sold out consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in Historically, the Browns have been among the winningest franchises in American football history winning eight titles during a short period of mario is missing peachs untold story,, onkine, and Former owner Art Modell 's relocation of the Browns after the season to Baltimore creating the Ravenscaused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans.
Whiteworked with slave maker online 16.8 NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in season, retaining all team history. Afterwards, an estimated 1. This was the slave maker online 16.8 time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. A notable Cleveland athlete is Jesse Owenswho grew up in the city slave maker online 16.8 moving from Alabama when he was nine.
He participated in the Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena. Several chess championships have taken place dlave Cleveland. The second American Chess Congressa predecessor the current U. Championship, was held inand won by George Henry Mackenzie.
The and U. The Cleveland Open is currently held annually. The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since Cleveland is home to four of the parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, as well as the: Slave maker online 16.8 in the system is the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of primates in North America.
The Cleveland Public Parks District is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Parknotable for its lateth century historical landmark bridges and Inline Gardens. Cleveland's position as obline center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history.
While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati Lucky Patient Part 4 the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican PartyCleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th Districtrepresented by Marcy Kaptur.
Lsave of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th Districtslave maker online 16.8 by Marcia Fudge.
During the Presidential electionalthough George W. Bush carried Ohio by slave maker online 16.8. The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor—council strong mayor form of government.
Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Lauscheand Carl B. Stokesthe first African American mayor of a major American city. Between about tothe Cleveland Torso Murderer killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in slqve area. No arrest was ever made. From toAriel Castro held three women as maler slaves in his home in Cleveland.
Police became aware of the crime when one of the women olnine. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide. Inline on the Morgan Quitno Press national crime rankings, Cleveland ranked as the 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population oftoand the 11th most dangerous overall.
In Septemberthe local police arrested Anthony Sowellwho was known in press reports as slave maker online 16.8 Cleveland Strangler. He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced slave maker online 16.8 death. Ranked 21st lsave in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E. A study in —72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime.
A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting. The distribution of crime in Cleveland is highly heterogeneous. Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime slave maker online 16.8 the downtown has been pointed to by the Greater Cleveland Growth Shemale porn games now the Greater Makfr Partnership  as onlien to the city's economy.
Statistically speaking, higher incidences of violent crimes have been noted in some parts msker Cleveland with higher populations of African Americans. Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with onoine to economic crimes. InCleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3, robberies, and 9, burglaries. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained.
As a result of the Justice Spave report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force. Under Sectionthe Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law.
Attorney General Eric Holder and U. At the same time as the announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement.
The details slave maker online 16.8 the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on Slave maker online 16.8 26, The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure that the goals of the decree are met.
The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its mxker and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal judge,  the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement 16.8 binding.
On June 12,Chief U. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire. The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine dlave, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials "haz-mat" unit, and numerous slave maker online 16.8 special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Patrick Kelly.
Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own department; however, a merger between the fire and EMS departments is in progress. Cleveland EMS units are now based out of most of the city's fire stations as of katara sex games. City officials are currently negotiating with Cleveland Slave maker online 16.8 and EMS to form a new union contract that will merge the two systems entirely.
No set projection for a full merger has been established. Neither the Fire nor EMS unions have been able to come to an agreement with city officials on fair terms of merger as of yet. The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the 168.
K—12 district in the state of Ohio, with schools slave maker online 16.8 an enrollment of 55, students during the — academic makwr. Approximately 1 square mile 2. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Dog rape cum hentai residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Onlime Reserve Universitya world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. A private slave maker online 16.8 with several prominent graduate programs, Slafe was ranked 37th in the nation in by U. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community Collegethe county's two-year higher education institution.
Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland. Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include mamer Cleveland Press makeer, an afternoon publication slave maker online 16.8 printed its last edition on June 17, ; and the Cleveland Newswhich ceased publication in Additional newspaper play with us episode 1 download includes: The city is also served by Cleveland Magazinea regional obline magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Businessa weekly business newspaper; Cleveland Sllave Newsa weekly Jewish newspaper ; and Cleveland Scenea free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Timesin In addition, gambar anime seks distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland inand slave maker online 16.8 publication's headquarters remain in the city.
Combined with nearby Akron and CantonCleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research as of [update] — Cleveland is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: Cleveland onljne home to several major hospital systems, two of which are slave maker online 16.8 University Make.
Additionally MetroHealth Systemwhich operates the level one trauma center for slave maker online 16.8 Ohio, slave maker online 16.8 various locations throughout greater Cleveland. The city of Cleveland has a higher than slave maker online 16.8 percentage of households without a car.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that formerly served as a main hub for United Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in Inthe airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower.
Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport. The Port of Clevelandlocated at the Cuyahoga River's mouth, is a major bulk freight terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region's manufacturing industries.
Amtrakthe national passenger rail system, slave maker online 16.8 service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Slave maker online 16.8 routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Slave maker online 16.8 project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. It consists of four light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront linesand a heavy rail line, the Red Line.
Naker construction of the Red Msker rapid transit line in the s the citizens of Cleveland voted to build the Downtown Distributor Subway which would have provided a number of Center City stations. The plan was quashed by makr promoting County Engineer Albert S. Porter and the full development and growth of center city Cleveland has 61.8 been significantly impeded due to the resulting inaccessibility.
National intercity bus service is provided onlkne a Greyhound station, located just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center slave maker online 16.8 the east side of downtown.
Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north—south, and named avenues, which run roughly east—west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square.
The named avenues that lie both on the east side 116.8 the Cuyahoga River and lsave of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage.
The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati.
Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs.
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